Android中的ClassLoader

Android AUmaWSsSoi 3个月前 (04-13) 68次浏览 0个评论

Android中的ClassLoader

1. Android中有哪几种ClassLoader?它们的作用和区别是什么?

有PathClassLoader, DexClassLoader, BootClassLoader

PathClassLoader: 用来加载系统类和应用程序代码(具体见PathClassLoader的构造方法的注释),只能本地文件系统上的文件和目录,而不能是网络上的

DexClassLoader: 用来加载dex,jar,apk,可以加载未安装在应用程序上的代码(DexClassLoader需要提供一个应用私有的可写入的目录,用来存放被优化的classes)(具体可以看DexClassLoader构造方法上英文的注释文档)

PathClassLoader, DexClassLoader 都是继承自 BaseDexClassLoader,两者都是调用的BaseDexClassLoader的方法

/**
 * Provides a simple {@link ClassLoader} implementation that operates on a list
 * of files and directories in the local file system, but does not attempt to
 * load classes from the network. Android uses this class for its system class
 * loader and for its application class loader(s).
 */
public PathClassLoader(String dexPath, String libraryPath,
            ClassLoader parent) {
        super(dexPath, null, libraryPath, parent);
}
/**
 * A class loader that loads classes from {@code .jar} and {@code .apk} files
 * containing a {@code classes.dex} entry. This can be used to execute code not
 * installed as part of an application.
 *
 * <p>This class loader requires an application-private, writable directory to
 * cache optimized classes. Use {@code Context.getDir(String, int)} to create
 * such a directory: <pre>   {@code
 *   File dexOutputDir = context.getDir("dex", 0);
 * }</pre>
 *
 * <p><strong>Do not cache optimized classes on external storage.</strong>
 * External storage does not provide access controls necessary to protect your
 * application from code injection attacks.
 */
public DexClassLoader(String dexPath, String optimizedDirectory,
            String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent) {
        super(dexPath, new File(optimizedDirectory), libraryPath, parent);
}

区别就在于optimizedDirectory是否为null。具体可以看BaseDexClassLoader的构造方法

public BaseDexClassLoader(String dexPath, File optimizedDirectory,
            String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent) {
        super(parent);
        this.originalPath = dexPath;
        this.pathList =
            new DexPathList(this, dexPath, libraryPath, optimizedDirectory);
    }

从这里我们找到了DexPathList类,那么还需要看看DexPathList是干嘛的

public DexPathList(ClassLoader definingContext, String dexPath,
            String libraryPath, File optimizedDirectory) {
       ...
        this.dexElements =
            makeDexElements(splitDexPath(dexPath), optimizedDirectory);
}
/**
     * Makes an array of dex/resource path elements, one per element of
     * the given array.
     */
private static Element[] makeDexElements(ArrayList<File> files,
            File optimizedDirectory) {
        ArrayList<Element> elements = new ArrayList<Element>();
        for (File file : files) {
            ...
            dex = loadDexFile(file, optimizedDirectory);
        }
        return elements.toArray(new Element[elements.size()])
}
private static DexFile loadDexFile(File file, File optimizedDirectory)
            throws IOException {
        if (optimizedDirectory == null) {
            return new DexFile(file);
        } else {
            String optimizedPath = optimizedPathFor(file, optimizedDirectory);
            return DexFile.loadDex(file.getPath(), optimizedPath, 0);
        }
    }
...
/**
     * Opens a DEX file from a given File object. This will usually be a ZIP/JAR
     * file with a "classes.dex" inside.
     *
     * The VM will generate the name of the corresponding file in
     * /data/dalvik-cache and open it, possibly creating or updating
     * it first if system permissions allow.  Don't pass in the name of
     * a file in /data/dalvik-cache, as the named file is expected to be
     * in its original (pre-dexopt) state.
     *
     * @param file
     *            the File object referencing the actual DEX file
     *
     * @throws IOException
     *             if an I/O error occurs, such as the file not being found or
     *             access rights missing for opening it
     */
public DexFile(File file) throws IOException {
        this(file.getPath());
}

DexPathList主要是加载全部的dex文件,内部通过dexElements属性维护全部的dex
我们还需要看一下DexPathList类的loadDexFile方法,里面有我们关心的一个参数optimizedDirectory,optimizedDirectory为null时,构造一个DexFile对象,不为null的时候,直接通过DexFile.loadDex(sourcePathName, outputPathName, flag)加载一个DexFile文件
先来看看DexFile.loadDex方法

static public DexFile loadDex(String sourcePathName, String outputPathName,
        int flags) throws IOException {
        return new DexFile(sourcePathName, outputPathName, flags);
}
public DexFile(String fileName) throws IOException {
        mCookie = openDexFile(fileName, null, 0);
        mFileName = fileName;
        guard.open("close");
        //System.out.println("DEX FILE cookie is " + mCookie);
}
private DexFile(String sourceName, String outputName, int flags) throws IOException {
        mCookie = openDexFile(sourceName, outputName, flags);
        mFileName = sourceName;
        guard.open("close");
        //System.out.println("DEX FILE cookie is " + mCookie);
}

本质上还是调用的DexFile的构造方法,那么不同之处在哪,在于构造方法里面openDexFile传入的参数outputName,对于optimizedDirectory为null,传入的outputName为null,这是为什么呢,因为PathClassLoader加载的是已经安装的应用,这部分classes已经被optimized处理过了,位于/data/dalvik-cache/目录下,不需要在为outputName指定路径了,而对于DexClassLoader而言,加载的是没有安装过的dex文件,那么是需要将优化的classes存储到应用的私有目录。

BootClassLoader: 继承的是ClassLoader类,作为PathClassLoader的父类加载器存在(也是Android中类加载器的根节点),也是一个package级别的类,对外获取不到

2. 简述ClassLoader的双亲委托模型

双亲委托模型,classLoader用于将一个class文件加载到虚拟机中,供程序运行时使用,动态加载。
在加载class的过程中,首先会先判断父加载器有没有加载这个类,如果加载了,那么由父加载器返回这个class对象,如果没有的话,那么就由当前的类加载器加载。(父加载器也是按照这个过程来)

这样做的好处是避免重复加载class,安全

3. 简述双亲委托模型在热修复领域的应用

首先我们需要看一下,在Android中,如何加载一个类,看看ClassLoader的loadClass方法

protected Class<?> loadClass(String name, boolean resolve)
        throws ClassNotFoundException
    {
...
c = findClass(name);
...
}

//对于android应用程序中加载class的加载器,我们确定无疑就是PathClassLoader,而PathClassLoader继承自BaseDexClassLoader,BaseDexClassLoader的findClass方法是重写过的
@Override
    protected Class<?> findClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException {
        Class clazz = pathList.findClass(name);
        if (clazz == null) {
            throw new ClassNotFoundException(name);
        }
        return clazz;
    }

pathList是什么呢,它的类型是DexPathList,DexPathList有一个成员变量叫做dexElements,维护了全部的dex文件,而我们要查找的类都是通过遍历这个dexElements数组,来获取到的。

在热修复中,我们可以将修复后的bugFixdex插入到这个dexElements的最前面,那么在查找某一个类A(存在bug的话)的时候,就优先从bugFixdex中查找到,并返回,而不会使用dexElements里面原来有问题的类A了,这样就达到了修复bug的问题


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